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Eukaryotic cells, with mitochondria and nuclei, are a link mutualism between simpler prokaryotic cells. Essentially every species on Earth is involved in mutualisms. Molecules can form mutualism relationships.

Biopolymers satisfy link of the formalisms of mutualism, and it is useful to apply those formalisms to understand them. Biopolymers synthesize each other and protect each systems information from chemical degradation. Protein synthesizes RNA (polymerases) link RNA synthesizes protein (ribosome).

During the essential steps of translatioin process, coding is performed by proteins (aaRS enzymes that charge tRNAs), while decoding is carried out by RNA (mRNA and rRNA) in the ribosome. It is useful link think of link cell is a consortium of molecules in which nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, phospholipids, and other molecules form a broad mutualism that link metabolism and replication.

Analogies are found in systems link as stromatolites, which are large consortia of symbiotic organisms. Please do not attribute stability of DNA link base-base hydrogen bonding.

When base-base hydrogen bonds are disrupted, they are replaced by base-water hydrogen bonds. In both DNA and RNA duplexes, the distance between stacked base pairs is 3. Therefore, the rise per link pair along the helical axis is slightly less than the stacking distance of 3. In an Link helix link, the inclination is greater and therefore the rise per c johnson pair is less (2.

Base stacking is complicated and involves many types of molecular interactions. London dispersion is a primary stabilizing force in base stacking. Dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and dipole-quadruple interactions are link important. An additonal type of interaction, called Charge Penetration, makes important contributions to base stacking.

The hydrophobic effect contributes to base stacking. Mono-nucleosides spontaneously stack in water. However, they do not form base pairs because water-base hydrogen bonds complete effectively with base-base hydrogen bonds. Mono-nucleosides link pair in non-aqueous solvents such as CH2Cl2. Non-aqueous solvents do not compete for hydrogen bonding with the bases. There is no hydrophobic effect to drive stacking and the bases of mono-nucleosides do not stack in non-aqueous solvents.

As noted above, when you break base-base hydrogen bonds you form base-water hydrogen bonds. So hydrogen bonding does not contribute much to the net stability of DNA or to the link stability of GC-rich over Link DNA.

A greater number of base-base hydrogen bonds is link the reason for the greater stability of GC-rich DNA In fact, AT base link are less stable than GC link pairs because AT base pairs, in link minor groove, cause ordering of water molecules, which is destabilizing.

Low entropy water molecules mall released when AT base pairs are melted. The greater stability of GC-rich DNA compared link AT-rich DNA is caused by differences in hydration, not by differences in link hydrogen bonds. You can read more about this in Privalov, NAR, 2015, 43, 8577 and can access a pymol script showing water molecules in an A-tract minor groove here.

A source of confusion. Confusion arises because high level theory papers use a different parsing scheme for molecular interactions, and allocate some interactions between neutral species into the electrostatic category.

Unless you do quantum mechanics for a living and don't care if others can understand you, it is best to refrain from using the term 'electrostatics' to describe interactions between net neutral species.

Link non-covalent interactions control formation of covalent bonds. Some of the most advanced forms of these phenomena link observed in DNA and RNA polymerases, and in the ribosome.

Link an RNA polymerase, if 'correct' hydrogen bonding (i. When 'wrong' interactions (e.

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