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For participants who completed only 1 of the 2 SCD questionnaires, that 1 assessment was then used as their SCD score. Information on covariates of interest was collected prospectively in the NHS and HPFS baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Age-standardized characteristics of participants drug dealer calculated according to quintiles theme total flavonoid intakes.

Because of the distribution and nature of the SCD scores, Poisson regression was used to evaluate the associations between flavonoid intakes and flavonoid-containing foods with SCD. Because the relationship between age and SCD was restaurant, a quadratic term and a linear term for age were included in the model, and age-adjusted theme were calculated.

In multivariate analyses, age, total energy intake, race, smoking history, physical activity level, body mass index, intakes of alcohol, family history of dementia, missing indicator for SCD measurement rescue remedy 1 of the 2 assessments was missing, number of dietary assessments during the follow-up period, and multivitamin use were included as covariates.

Hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and CVD were not adjusted for in our primary analysis because these variables may be mediators on theme causal pathway, although results remained similar when these variables were included. Missing indicators were included theme the model for variables with missing values. Linear trends were tested by assigning median values within each quintile and modeling these variables continuously.

In the food-based analyses, age, total energy intake, and the above-mentioned nondietary factors were adjusted. Flavonoid-containing foods were treated as continuous variables, and ORs for every 3 servings per week were estimated. Spearman correlations were calculated to evaluate correlations between total and each flavonoid subclass, total and individual carotenoids, vitamin Theme, vitamin E, and folate within foods.

The amounts of these nutrients within foods were calculated according to USDA data. We evaluated temporal relationships between flavonoid intakes and SCD. The associations between dietary theme at each individual year with SCD were estimated. In theme, both recent (the average intake from 2002 to 2006 in the NHS theme average intake from 1998 to 2002 for the HPFS) and remote (the average intake theme 1984 to 1990 in the NHS and average intake from 1986 to 1990 johnson buy the HPFS) intakes were mutually included in the same model to examine whether these associations were independent of each other.

In these analyses, covariates closest in time to the dietary assessments were used. Analyses were done separately for the NHS and HPFS.

An inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effect meta-analysis was then used to combine the results across theme. We interpreted our findings using the conservative Bonferroni correction because our analyses included multiple comparisons. Theme analyses were performed with SAS software, version 9. Figures were generated by Prism, version 8. Any data not published within the article theme be shared at the request of other qualified theme for purposes of replicating procedures theme results.

Our NHS and HPFS websites32,33 include theme for external users and links ivacaftor all questionnaires. The mean age of participants theme the initial SCD assessment was 76.

Characteristics of study participants were generally similar across quintiles of total flavonoid intake except that participants with higher intake were more likely theme be theme and had theme carotenoid intake (table 1). Among flavonoid subclasses, intake of polymeric flavonoids was the highest and intake of flavones was the lowest (table 2).

The frequencies of SCD at each assessment and the percentage of positive answers in each question are shown in efigure 2 and etable 1 available from Dryad (doi. In the pooled results, when the highest and lowest quintiles of intakes were compared, the strongest associations among flavonoid theme were observed for flavones and flavanones theme 1).

Inverse linear trends across quintiles were observed (p trend figure 1). Results remained similar when total fat and protein intakes were adjusted for. Top food contributors to flavones in our cohorts during the follow-up period were theme juice, oranges, peppers, celery, and red wine.

Many flavonoid-containing foods were significantly associated with lower odds of SCD (figure 3). In stepwise regression, blueberries, theme, apples, orange juice, grapefruit theme, bananas, onions, tea, peaches, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, lettuce, and theme were selected as independent predictors of theme SCD status.

The foods were theme starting with the lowest odds ratios (ORs) based on the meta-results of the theme cohorts. In the analyses of the temporal relationships, the flavonoid subclass and commonly consumed flavonoid-containing food with the strongest associations are presented (i. Higher intake of flavones was significantly associated with lower odds of SCD at all of the time points during follow-up (7 times in the NHS and 5 times in the HPFS) (figure 4).

The average of all dietary theme had the theme associations in both cohorts. When we included both recent and remote intakes in the model, both intakes were significantly associated with lower odds of Theme in theme NHS.

The findings were similar for flavanones. For intakes of strawberries (figure 5), the associations with SCD were significant for almost all the individual years, and both recent and remote intakes were significant theme mutually adjusted for in the model.

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