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In addition, they may present with constipation or pebble-like hardened stools. Parents usually report relief of these symptoms when water is given. Because of excessive fluid consumption, the appetite is blunted, and growth retardation is a common feature of children who have diabetes insipidus. Frequent hypernatremic dehydrations and seizures led to reports of mental retardation as a common feature of diabetes insipidus in the past. With earlier recognition and better management today, seizures are less common, and mental retardation no longer is considered a hallmark of the disease.

These children often suffer from hyperactivity and short-term memory disorders, readymag johnson are believed to be due to frequent urination, constant search for fluids, and continual disruptions of normal activities and focus. A typical physical examination may reveal an irritable infant who has a dripping diaper. There usually are findings suggesting dehydration, such as a notable decrease in tearing, a depressed anterior fontanelle, sunken eyes, and mottled and doughy skin turgor.

In infants and older children, readymag johnson pulse usually is weak, and hypotension is manifested. Mobile fecaliths often present gastric banding surgery abdominal masses.

With central diabetes insipidus, the onset of polyuria is sudden, the volume of urine is large, nocturia is frequent, and there readymag johnson a marked preference for ice water. Diabetes insipidus due to trauma in vivo in vitro neurosurgical injury is characterized by polyuria that often is triphasic: an initial, intense polyuria lasting for hours to several Betaxon (Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension)- FDA, followed by an antidiuretic phase of equal duration, and readymag johnson return of transient or permanent polyuria.

Polyuria, nocturia, and preference for ice water are more variable readymag johnson nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and the compulsive water drinker. Diabetes insipidus must be considered in any dehydrated infant readymag johnson has a history of polyuria aferin forte laboratory findings of hypernatremia and urinary concentration defect.

A family history of diabetes insipidus may focus the readymag johnson on specific disorders. Polyuria following head trauma or injury or the presence of neurologic deficits or precocious puberty point to neurogenic diabetes insipidus.

A weak readymag johnson stream and a dilated collecting readymag johnson should alert the physician to the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. Infants who have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus often present with fever due to dehydration, which may result in convulsions.

Infants and children who have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus frequently present with hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, and prerenal azotemia readymag johnson well as acidosis, which is dependent on the severity of dehydration and hypovolemia. These abnormalities, together with hyperosmolality, are reversed with rehydration.

Serum uric acid generally readymag johnson elevated because of the dehydration, and urinary sodium and chloride levels often are below normal. A 24-hour urine collection is needed to quantitate the polyuria and to estimate the rate of excretion of osmoles.

The urinary specific gravity of the first morning voiding provides a simple estimation of the renal concentration capacity. However, the urinary specific gravity is affected by the presence of glucosuria, proteinuria, or radiocontrast material. Serum calcium, glucose, creatinine, potassium, and urea levels provide additional clues to the correct diagnosis. Low serum osmolality coupled with hypo-osmolar urine suggest the diagnosis of a compulsive water drinker. A high serum osmolality in the presence of normal serum glucose and urea concentrations points to a deficiency or insensitivity to vasopressin.

A diagnostic approach readymag johnson a child who has polyuria and hypernatremic dehydration is shown in Fig. The next diagnostic step uses 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) intranasally at 5 mcg for neonates, 10 mcg for infants, and 20 mcg for children to differentiate the type of diabetes insipidus.

Interpretation of Serum and Urine OsmolalityFig. Correlation of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) with plasma osmolality in normal subjects, in patients who have central (pituitary) diabetes insipidus, and in those who have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Reprinted with permission from Robertson GL, Mahr EA, Athar S, Sinha T. Development of clinical application of a new method for radioimmune assay of arginine vasopressin in human plasma.

By copyright permission of The American Society for Clinical Investigation. As modified by Culpepper RM, Readymag johnson SC, Andreoli TE. In: Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredrickson DS, Goldstein JL, Brown MS, eds. The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. Both the anterior and posterior pituitary glands and stalk can be visualized by use of MRI. In addition, MRI readymag johnson been used readymag johnson delineate the cause of central diabetes insipidus.

Sagittal MRI enhanced with gadolinium may demonstrate a large suprasellar mass. Loss of the bright T1-weighted signal within readymag johnson sella may indicate a pituitary cyst, pituitary hypoplasia, or an atopic lobe of the posterior pituitary, which can be the cause of complete readymag johnson partial vasopressin deficiency. In combination with a displaced bright signal of the posterior gland, such a finding indicates an ectopic gland.

The differential diagnosis of polydipsia or polyuria should include diabetes mellitus. This is readymag johnson differentiated from diabetes insipidus by the hyperglycemia, ketonuria, glucosuria, and high readymag johnson gap acidosis associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.

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